Audio Research Year in Review- Part 1, It’s all about us

Enjoy the holiday!

So as 2017 is coming to an end, everyone is rushing to get their ‘Year in Review’ articles out. And we’re no different in that regard. Only we’re going to do it in two parts, first what we have been doing this year, and then a second blog entry reviewing all the great breakthroughs and interesting research results in audio engineering, psychoacoustics, sound synthesis and related fields.

But first, lets talk about us. 🙂

I think we’ve all done some wonderful research this year, and the Audio Engineering team here can be proud of the results and progress.

Social Media:

First off, we’ve increased our social media presence tremendously,

• This blog, has 7,363 views, with  1,128 followers, mostly through other social media.

• We started a twitter account, and now have 615 followers. Not huge, but doing well for the first few months of a research-focused feed.

• Our Youtube channel, has 16,778 views and 178 subscribers

Here’s a sample video from our YouTube channel;

So people are reading and watching, which gives us even more incentive to put stuff out there that’s worth it for you to check out.


We won three best paper or presentation awards;

Adan Benito (left) and Thomas Vassallo (right) for best presentation at the Web Audio Conference

benito vassallo awardRod Selfridge (right) , Dave Moffat and I, for best paper at Sound and Music Computing

selfridge award

I (right) won the best Journal of the Audio Engineering Society paper award, 2016 (announced in 2017 of course)

reiss award2



Brecht De Man got his PhD and Yonghao Wang submitted his. Dave Ronan, Alessia Milo, Josh Mycroft and Rod Selfridge have all entered the write-up stage of their PhDs.

Brecht started a post-doc position and became Vice-Chair of the AES Education Committee, and I (Josh Reiss) was promoted to Professor of Audio Engineering. Dave Ronan started a position at AI Music.

We also welcomed a large number of visitors throughout the year, notably Dr. Amandine Pras and Saurjya Sarkar, now with Qualcomm.

Grants and projects:

We started the Cross-adaptive processing for musical intervention project (supporting Brecht, and Saurjya’s visit) and the Autonomous Systems for Sound Integration and GeneratioN (ASSIGN) InnovateUK project (supporting RTSFX researchers). We completed Brecht’s Yamaha postdoc, with another expected, and completed the QMI Proof of Concept: Sound Effect Synthesis project. We’ve been working closely with industry on a variety of projects, especially with RPPtv, who are funding Emmanouil Chourdakis’s PhD and collaborating on InnovateUK projects. We have other exciting grants in progress.


We’ve been involved in a few workshops. Will Wilkinson and Dave Moffat were on the organising committee for Audio Mostly. Alessia Milo gave an invited talk at the 8th International Symposium on Temporal Design, and organised a soundwalk at Audible Old Kent Road. Brecht and I were on the organizing committee of the 3rd Workshop on Intelligent Music Production. Brecht organized Sound Talking at the Science Museum, and panel sessions on listening tests design at the 142nd and 143rd AES Conventions. Dave Moffat organized a couple of Procedural Audio Now meet-ups.


We had a fantastic year for publications, five journal papers (and one more accepted) and twenty conference papers. I’ve listed them all below.

Journal articles

  1. D. Moffat and J. D. Reiss, ‘Perceptual Evaluation of Synthesized Sound Effects,’ accepted for ACM Transactions on Applied Perception
  2. R. Selfridge, D. Moffat and J. D. Reiss, ‘Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models,’ Applied Sciences, v. 7 (11), Nov. 2017, Online version doi:10.3390/app7111177
  3. A. Zacharakis, M. Terrell, A. Simpson, K. Pastiadis and J. Reiss ‘Rearrangement of timbre space due to background noise: behavioural evidence and acoustic correlates,’ Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 103 (2), 288-298, 2017. Definitive publisher-authenticated version at
  4. P. Pestana and J. Reiss, ‘User Preference on Artificial Reverberation and Delay Time Parameters,’ J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 65, No. 1/2, January/February 2017.
  5. B. De Man, K. McNally and J. Reiss, ‘Perceptual evaluation and analysis of reverberation in multitrack music production,’ J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 65, No. 1/2, January/February 2017.
  6. E. Chourdakis and J. Reiss, ‘A machine learning approach to design and evaluation of intelligent artificial reverberation,’ J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 65, No. 1/2, January/February 2017.

Book chapters

  • Accepted: A. Milo, N. Bryan-Kinns, and J. D. Reiss. Graphical Research Tools for Acoustic Design Training: Capturing Perception in Architectural Settings. In Perception-Driven Approaches to Urban Assessment and Design, F. Aletta and X. Jieling (Eds.). IGI Global.
  • J. D. Reiss, ‘An Intelligent Systems Approach to Mixing Multitrack Music‘, Perspectives On Music Production: Mixing Music, Routledge, 2017


Conference papers

  1. M. A. Martinez Ramirez and J. D. Reiss, ‘Stem Audio Mixing as a Content-Based Transformation of Audio Features,’ IEEE 19th International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Luton, UK, Oct. 16-18, 2017.
  2. M. A. Martinez Ramirez and J. D. Reiss, ‘Analysis and Prediction of the Audio Feature Space when Mixing Raw Recordings into Individual Stems,’ 143rd AES Convention, New York, Oct. 18-21, 2017.
  3. A. Milo, N. Bryan-Kinns and J. D. Reiss, ‘Influences of a Key Map on Soundwalk Exploration with a Textile Sonic Map,’ 143rd AES Convention, New York, Oct. 18-21, 2017.
  4. A. Milo and J. D. Reiss, ‘Aural Fabric: an interactive textile sonic map,’ Audio Mostly, London, 2017
  5. R. Selfridge, D. Moffat and J. D. Reiss, ‘Physically Derived Sound Synthesis Model of a Propeller,’ Audio Mostly, London, 2017
  6. N. Jillings, R. Stables and J. D. Reiss, ‘Zero-Delay Large Signal Convolution Using Multiple Processor Architectures,’ WASPAA, New York, 2017
  7. E. T. Chourdakis and J. D. Reiss, ‘Constructing narrative using a generative model and continuous action policies,’ CC-NLG, 2017
  8. M. A. Martinez Ramirez and J. D. Reiss, ‘Deep Learning and Intelligent Audio Mixing,’ 3rd Workshop on Intelligent Music Production, Salford, UK, 15 September 2017.
  9. B. De Man, J. D. Reiss and R. Stables, ‘Ten years of automatic mixing,’ 3rd Workshop on Intelligent Music Production, Salford, UK, 15 September 2017.
  10. W. Wilkinson, J. D. Reiss and D. Stowell, ‘Latent Force Models for Sound: Learning Modal Synthesis Parameters and Excitation Functions from Audio Recordings,’ 20th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-17), Edinburgh, UK, September 5–9, 2017
  11. S. Sarkar, J. Reiss and O. Brandtsegg, ‘Investigation of a Drum Controlled Cross-adaptive Audio Effect for Live Performance,’ 20th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-17), Edinburgh, UK, September 5–9, 2017
  12. B. De Man and J. D. Reiss, ‘The mix evaluation dataset,’ 20th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-17), Edinburgh, UK, September 5–9, 2017
  13. D. Moffat, D. Ronan and J. D. Reiss, ‘Unsupervised taxonomy of sound effects,’ 20th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-17), Edinburgh, UK, September 5–9, 2017
  14. R. Selfridge, D. Moffat and J. D. Reiss, ‘Physically Derived Synthesis Model of a Cavity Tone,’ Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) Conf., Edinburgh, September 5–9, 2017
  15. N. Jillings, Y. Wang, R. Stables and J. D. Reiss, ‘Intelligent audio plugin framework for the Web Audio API,’ Web Audio Conference, London, 2017
  16. R. Selfridge, D. J. Moffat and J. D. Reiss, ‘Real-time physical model for synthesis of sword swing sounds,’ Best paper award, Sound and Music Computing (SMC), Helsinki, July 5-8, 2017.
  17. R. Selfridge, D. J. Moffat, E. Avital, and J. D. Reiss, ‘Real-time physical model of an Aeolian harp,’ 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV), London, July 23-27, 2017.
  18. A. Benito and J. D. Reiss, ‘Intelligent Multitrack Reverberation Based on Hinge-Loss Markov Random Fields,’ AES Semantic Audio, Erlangen Germany, June 2017
  19. D. Ronan, H. Gunes and J. D. Reiss, “Analysis of the Subgrouping Practices of Professional Mix Engineers“, AES 142nd Convention, Berlin, May 20-23, 2017
  20. Y. Song, Y. Wang, P. Bull and J. D. Reiss, ‘Performance Evaluation of a New Flexible Time Division Multiplexing Protocol on Mixed Traffic Types,’ 31st IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), Taipei, Taiwan, March 27-29, 2017.



Ten Years of Automatic Mixing


Automatic microphone mixers have been around since 1975. These are devices that lower the levels of microphones that are not in use, thus reducing background noise and preventing acoustic feedback. They’re great for things like conference settings, where there may be many microphones but only a few speakers should be heard at any time.

Over the next three decades, various designs appeared, but it didn’t really grow much from Dan Dugan’s original Dan Dugan’s original concept.

Enter Enrique Perez Gonzalez, a PhD student researcher and experienced sound engineer. On September 11th, 2007, exactly ten years ago from the publication of this blog post, he presented a paper “Automatic Mixing: Live Downmixing Stereo Panner.” With this work, he showed that it may be possible to automate not just fader levels in speech applications, but other tasks and for other applications. Over the course of his PhD research, he proposed methods for autonomous operation of many aspects of the music mixing process; stereo positioning, equalisation, time alignment, polarity correction, feedback prevention, selective masking minimization, etc. He also laid out a framework for further automatic mixing systems.

Enrique established a new field of research, and its been growing ever since. People have used machine learning techniques for automatic mixing, applied auditory neuroscience to the problem, and explored where the boundaries lie between the creative and technical aspects of mixing. Commercial products have arisen based on the concept. And yet all this is still only scratching the surface.

I had the privilege to supervise Enrique and have many anecdotes from that time. I remember Enrique and I going to a talk that Dan Dugan gave at an AES convention panel session and one of us asked Dan about automating other aspects of the mix besides mic levels. He had a puzzled look and basically said that he’d never considered it. It was also interesting to see the hostile reactions from some (but certainly not all) practitioners, which brings up lots of interesting questions about disruptive innovations and the threat of automation.


Next week, Salford University will host the 3rd Workshop on Intelligent Music Production, which also builds on this early research. There, Brecht De Man will present the paper ‘Ten Years of Automatic Mixing’, describing the evolution of the field, the approaches taken, the gaps in our knowledge and what appears to be the most exciting new research directions. Enrique, who is now CTO of Solid State Logic, will also be a panellist at the Workshop.

Here’s a video of one of the early Automatic Mixing demonstrators.

And here’s a list of all the early Automatic Mixing papers.

  • E. Perez Gonzalez and J. D. Reiss, A real-time semi-autonomous audio panning system for music mixing, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, v2010, Article ID 436895, p. 1-10, 2010.
  • Perez-Gonzalez, E. and Reiss, J. D. (2011) Automatic Mixing, in DAFX: Digital Audio Effects, Second Edition (ed U. Zölzer), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781119991298. ch13, p. 523-550.
  • E. Perez Gonzalez and J. D. Reiss, “Automatic equalization of multi-channel audio using cross-adaptive methods”, Proceedings of the 127th AES Convention, New York, October 2009
  • E. Perez Gonzalez, J. D. Reiss “Automatic Gain and Fader Control For Live Mixing”, IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA), New Paltz, New York, October 18-21, 2009
  • E. Perez Gonzalez, J. D. Reiss “Determination and correction of individual channel time offsets for signals involved in an audio mixture”, 125th AES Convention, San Francisco, USA, October 2008
  • E. Perez Gonzalez, J. D. Reiss “An automatic maximum gain normalization technique with applications to audio mixing.”, 124th AES Convention, Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 2008
  • E. Perez Gonzalez, J. D. Reiss, “Improved control for selective minimization of masking using interchannel dependency effects”, 11th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx), September 2008
  • E. Perez Gonzalez, J. D. Reiss, “Automatic Mixing: Live Downmixing Stereo Panner”, 10th International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-07), Bordeaux, France, September 10-15, 2007

Joshua D Reiss – Professor of Audio Engineering

Intelligent Sound Engineering are pleased to announce our lead academic, Joshua D Reiss has been promoted to Professor of Audio Engineering.

Professor Reiss holds degrees in Physics and Mathematics, and a PhD in Chaos Theory from Georgia Institute of Technology. He has been an academic with the Centre for Digital Music in the Electronic Engineering and Computer Science department at Queen Mary University of London since 2003. His primary focus of research is on state-of-the-art signal processing techniques for sound engineering, publishing over 160 scientific papers and authoring the book “Audio Effects: Theory, Implementation and Application” together with Andrew McPherson. Along with pioneering research into intelligent audio production technologies, Professor Reiss also focuses on state of the art sound synthesis techniques.

Professor Reiss is a visiting Professor at Birmingham City University, an Enterprise Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and has been a governor of the Audio Engineering Society from 2013 to present.

Blogs, blogs, blogs

We’re collaborating on a really interesting project called ‘Cross-adaptive processing as musical intervention,’ led by Professor Øyvind Brandtsegg of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Essentially, this project involves cross-adaptive audio effects, where the processing applied to one audio signal is dependent on analysis of other signals. We’ve used this concept quite a lot to build intelligent music production systems. But in this project, Øyvind and his collaborators are exploring creative uses of cross-adaptive audio effects in live performance. The effects applied to one source may change depending on what and how another performer plays, so a performer may change what they play to overtly influence everyone else’s sound, thus taking the interplay in a jam session to a whole new level.

One of the neat things that they’ve done to get this project off the ground is created a blog, , which is a great way to get all the reports and reflections out there quickly and widely.

This got me thinking of a few other blogs that we should mention. First and foremost is Prof, Trevor Cox of the University of Salford’s wonderful blog, ‘The Sound Blog: Dispatches from Acoustic and Audio Engineering,’ is available at . This blog was one of the principal inspirations for our own blog here.

Another leading researcher’s interesting blog is – Mariana is looking into aspects of sound design that I feel really don’t get enough attention from the academic community… yet. Hopefully, that will change soon.

There’s plenty of blogs about music production. A couple of good ones are and . They are full of practical advice, insights and tutorials.

A lot of the researchers in the Audio Engineering team have their own personal blogs, which discuss their research, their projects and various other things related to their career or just cool technologies.

See, – Brecht De Man ‘s blog. He’s researching semantic and knowledge engineering approaches to music production systems (and a lot more). – Alessia Milo’s blog. She’s looking at (and listening to) soundscapes, and their importance in architecture – Dave Moffat is investigating evaluation of sound synthesis techniques, and how machine learning can be applied to synthesize a wide variety of sound effects. – Rod Selfridge is looking at real-time physical modelling techniques for procedural audio and sound synthesis.

More to come on all of them, I’m sure.

Let us know of any other blogs that we should mention, and we’ll update this entry or add new entries.

Welcome to our blog

Hi everyone, and welcome to our new blog, provisionally titled ‘Intelligent Sound Engineering.’ We are the Audio Engineering research team within the Centre for Digital Music at Queen Mary University of London.

This blog is for us to discuss anything of interest to us. It will touch on research subjects like audio effects, sound synthesis, music production, acoustics, psychoacoustics, intelligent systems design and more. But we’ll also chat about any interesting news items, what we (or our colleagues) have been doing, and what it is like to be engaged in academic research.

Don’t forget to check out our youtube channel, IntelligentSoundEng, with around 50 videos.

Please get in touch.